PDF is below.
Romans 1 (NIV)
1 Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle and set apart for the gospel of God— 2 the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures 3 regarding his Son, who as to his earthly life was a descendant of David, 4 and who through the Spirit of holiness was appointed the Son of God in power by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord. 5 Through him we received grace and apostleship to call all the Gentiles to the obedience that comes from faith for his name’s sake. 6 And you also are among those Gentiles who are called to belong to Jesus Christ.
7 To all in Rome who are loved by God and called to be his holy people:
Grace and peace to you from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
Verse 2: the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures
The gospel is singular. This is important considering the polytheism that was popular in those days.
The gospel is 100% effective against the terminal disease of sin. –Chuck Swindoll
He promised beforehand…
Promise (Webster, 1828): In a general sense, a declaration, written or verbal, made by one person to another, which binds the person who makes it, either in honor, conscience or law, to do or forbear a certain act specified; a declaration which gives to the person to whom it is made, a right to expect or to claim the performance or forbearance of the act.
Beforehand: in advance
Galatians 3:8-9: “Scripture foresaw that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, and announced the gospel in advance to Abraham: ‘All nations will be blessed through you.’ So those who rely on faith are blessed along with Abraham, the man of faith.”
Titus 1:2: “in the hope of eternal life, which God, who does not lie, promised before the beginning of time.”
Origin of the gospel is God (see v. 1)
Through his prophets…
Proclaimer of divine message; speaks on behalf of and interprets the will of another
Rebuke, and predict
One who, moved by the Spirit of God and hence his spokesman, solemnly declares to men what he has received by inspiration, especially concerning future events, and in particular as it relates to the course and kingdom of God and to human salvation.
In the Holy Scriptures…
Scriptures: Paul is referencing the Old Testament…
The entire OT points to Jesus Christ!
“Each genre and part of the Old Testament looks toward Christ and informs us about who he is in some way that the others do not.” -Tim Keller, Preaching
Verse 3: regarding his Son, who as to his earthly life was a descendant of David,
Regarding [concerning] his Son…
John 3:16 (CSB): “For God loved the world in this way: He gave his one and only Son, so that everyone who believes in him will not perish but have eternal life.”
The content of the gospel is Jesus Christ
That which encircles…
Who as to his earthly [flesh] life…
Incarnation (Webster, 1828): The act of assuming flesh, or of taking a human body and the nature of man; as the incarnation of the Son of God.
Humiliation (Webster, 1828): Descent from an elevated state or rank to one that is low or humble.
Philippians 2:7-8: “rather, he made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to death—even death on a cross!
He became what we are, to make us what He is. –Irenaeus
Jesus was 100% man and 100% God = Hypostatic Union
Was a descendant [seed] of David…
Could lay claim to the throne.
Fulfilled more OT prophecy.
Matthew 1:1: “This is the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah the son of David, the son of Abraham.”
Verse 4: and who through the Spirit of holiness was appointed the Son of God in power by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord.
And who through the Spirit of holiness
Holiness: personally dedicated to God; set apart; pure
Exaltation (Webster, 1828): Elevation to power, office, rank, dignity or excellence.
Philippians 2:9-11: “Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.”
Was appointed [declared]...
Greek: horizo; horizon=mark out by sure signs
Become clearly characterized by; determine; ordained.
Resurrection revealed that Jesus was the Son of God.
The Son of God…
Greek: dynamis; where we get our word for dynamite, but…
2 Corinthians 13:4: “For to be sure, he was crucified in weakness, yet he lives by God’s power. Likewise, we are weak in him, yet by God’s power we will live with him in our dealing with you.”
By his resurrection from the dead…
Dead to life.
Acts 26:22-23: “But God has helped me to this very day; so I stand here and testify to small and great alike. I am saying nothing beyond what the prophets and Moses said would happen—that the Messiah would suffer and, as the first to rise from the dead, would bring the message of light to his own people and to the Gentiles.”
Jesus Christ, our Lord.
Lord=owner, ruler. Webster, 1828: “A master; a person possessing supreme power and authority”
Verse 5: Through him we received grace and apostleship to call all the Gentiles to the obedience that comes from faith for his name’s sake.
Through him we received
Come into possession of.
Absolutely free and absolutely unearned.
“God’s Righteousness at Christ’s Expense.”
Office of envoys. Sent on a mission. Latin word is “missionary.”
Delegate, messenger; commissioned (Matthew 22 and 28)
Notice that God’s grace (“come to me”) proceeds apostleship (“Go and tell the world”).
To invite or draw into union with Christ; to bring to know, believe and obey the gospel.
All the Gentiles [nations]…
Greek: ethnos. People group.
Unengaged Unreached People Groups (UUPG’s)
A people group is unreached when less than 2 percent of its population is evangelical Christian.
A people group is unengaged when no evangelical church planting strategy is being implemented among them.
Of the nearly 3,100 Unengaged Unreached People Groups, less than 400 have populations exceeding 100,000.
To the obedience…
Compliance, submission; submissive conformity
the performance of what is required
“Learning takes place when an individual’s behavior changed as a result of new information. God did not save us merely to deposit a set of theological principles into our heads. We are saved in order to surrender our lives to Christ.” –Chuck Swindoll
that comes from faith...
trust in Christ
For his name sake.
Do everything for the glory of God!
Verse 6: And you also are among those Gentiles who are called to belong to Jesus Christ.
And you also…
Revelation 17:14: “They will wage war against the Lamb, but the Lamb will triumph over them because he is Lord of lords and King of kings—and with him will be his called, chosen and faithful followers.”
Are among those Gentiles…
Nations (v. 5)
Who are called…
Divinely selected and appointed
We are called to faith and obedience.
We want to see lost people saved and saved people grow.
–Scott Mathis, President of the Berean Fellowship
In the OT, the Tabernacle, the Temple, tithes and offerings, all of them were set apart.
In the NT, set apart FOR gospel proclamation
To Jesus Christ.
Verse 7: To all in Rome who are loved by God and called to be his holy people: Grace and peace to you from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
To all in Rome…
Acts 2:10: those present for Pentecost include “visitors from Rome.”
Who are loved [beloved of] by God…
Esteemed; dearly loved and cherished
And called to be…
Join the apostolic mission where God has placed you.
His holy people [saints]…
Person of God; dedicated
This sainthood is not an attainment; it is a state into which God in grace calls men.
Share in God’s life and mission.
All believers are saints in Gods eyes… because of Christ!
Status, not behavior
There are two types of people, the saints and the aints. –J. Vernon McGee
A saint is not one who has been exalted, but one who exalts Jesus Christ.
Grace and peace to you…
Grace is charis (Greek); Peace is shalom (Hebrew); bound together in Christ
The two are never separated in Paul’s greetings.
Peace: This is more than an absence of tension, but a presence of wholeness. It is the Jewish word “Shalom.” This was a common greeting, a blessing. It expressed a wish for prosperity, physical health, salvation, and harmonious relationships.
Paul is greeting Christians, so this “grace” isn’t salvation…
From God our Father…
And from the Lord Jesus Christ…
Chuck Missler’s Commentary (audio):